Core-Shell Fe3O4@C Nanoparticles for the Organic Dye Adsorption and Targeted Magneto-Mechanical Destruction of Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells

Ivanova, Oxana S. (Ivanova, Oxana S.) ; Edelman, Irina S. (Edelman, Irina S.) ; Lin, Chun-Rong (Lin, Chun-Rong) ; Svetlitsky, Evgeniy S. (Svetlitsky, Evgeniy S.) ; Sokolov, Alexey E. (Sokolov, Alexey E.) ; Lukyanenko, Kirill A. (Lukyanenko, Kirill A.) ; Sukhachev, Alexander L. (Sukhachev, Alexander L.) ; Shestakov, Nikolay P. (Shestakov, Nikolay P.) ; Chen, Ying-Zhen (Chen, Ying-Zhen) ; Spivakov, Aleksandr A. (Spivakov, Aleksandr A.)// Materials//

The morphology, structure, and magnetic properties of Fe3O4 and Fe3O4@C nanoparticles, as well their effectiveness for organic dye adsorption and targeted destruction of carcinoma cells, were studied. The nanoparticles exhibited a high magnetic saturation value (79.4 and 63.8 emu/g, correspondingly) to facilitate magnetic separation. It has been shown that surface properties play a key role in the adsorption process. Both types of organic dyes-cationic (Rhodomine C) and anionic (Congo Red and Eosine)-were well adsorbed by the Fe3O4 nanoparticles' surface, and the adsorption process was described by the polymolecular adsorption model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 58, 22, and 14 mg/g for Congo Red, Eosine, and Rhodomine C, correspondingly. In this case, the kinetic data were described well by the pseudo-first-order model. Carbon-coated particles selectively adsorbed only cationic dyes, and the adsorption process for Methylene Blue was described by the Freundlich model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 14 mg/g. For the case of Rhodomine C, the adsorption isotherm has a polymolecular character with a maximum adsorption capacity of 34 mg/g. To realize the targeted destruction of the carcinoma cells, the Fe3O4@C nanoparticles were functionalized with aptamers, and an experiment on the Ehrlich ascetic carcinoma cells' destruction was carried out successively using a low-frequency alternating magnetic field. The number of cells destroyed as a result of their interaction with Fe3O4@C nanoparticles in an alternating magnetic field was 27%, compared with the number of naturally dead control cells of 6%.