Magnetic Nanodiscs-A New Promising Tool for Microsurgery of Malignant Neoplasms

Zamay, Tatiana N.; Prokopenko, Vladimir S.; Zamay, Sergey S.; Lukyanenko, Kirill A.; Kolovskaya, Olga S.; et al. Nanomaterials.

Magnetomechanical therapy is one of the most perspective directions in tumor microsurgery. According to the analysis of recent publications, it can be concluded that a nanoscalpel could become an instrument sufficient for cancer microsurgery. It should possess the following properties: (1) nano- or microsized; (2) affinity and specificity to the targets on tumor cells; (3) remote control. This nano- or microscalpel should include at least two components: (1) a physical nanostructure (particle, disc, plates) with the ability to transform the magnetic moment to mechanical torque; (2) a ligand—a molecule (antibody, aptamer, etc.) allowing the scalpel precisely target tumor cells. Literature analysis revealed that the most suitable nanoscalpel structures are anisotropic, magnetic micro- or nanodiscs with high-saturation magnetization and the absence of remanence, facilitating scalpel remote control via the magnetic field. Additionally, anisotropy enhances the transmigration of the discs to the tumor. To date, four types of magnetic microdiscs have been used for tumor destruction: synthetic antiferromagnetic P-SAF (perpendicular) and SAF (in-plane), vortex Py, and three-layer non-magnetic–ferromagnet–non-magnetic systems with flat quasi-dipole magnetic structures. In the current review, we discuss the biological effects of magnetic discs, the mechanisms of action, and the toxicity in alternating or rotating magnetic fields in vitro and in vivo. Based on the experimental data presented in the literature, we conclude that the targeted and remotely controlled magnetic field nanoscalpel is an effective and safe instrument for cancer therapy or theranostics.