Investigation of intrinsic defect magnetic properties in wurtzite ZnO materials

Fedorov, AS; Visotin, MA; Kholtobina, AS; Kuzubov, AA; Mikhaleva, NS; Hsu, HS JOURNAL OF MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS, 440 5-9; Doi: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2016.12.130 OCT 15 2017

Theoretical and experimental investigations of the ferromagnetism induced by intrinsic defects inside wurtzite zinc oxide structures are performed using magnetic field-dependent circular dichroism (MCD-H), direct magnetization measurement (M-H) by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) as well as by generalized gradient density functional theory (GGA-DFT). To investigate localized magnetic moments of bulk material intrinsic defects - vacancies, interstitial atoms and Frenkel defects, various-size periodic supercells are calculated. It is shown that oxygen interstitial atoms (Oi) or zinc vacancies (Znv) generate magnetic moments of 1,98 и 1,26 µB respectively, however, the magnitudes are significantly reduced when the distance between defects increases. At the same time, the magnetic moments of oxygen Frenkel defects are large (~1.5–1.8 µB) and do not depend on the distance between the defects. It is shown that the origin of the induced ferromagnetism in bulk ZnO is the extra spin density on the oxygen atoms nearest to the defect. Also dependence of the magnetization of ZnO ̅ thin films on the positions of Oi and Znv in subsurface layers were investigated and it is shown that the magnetic moments of both defects are significantly different from the values inside bulk material. In order to check theoretical results regarding the defect induced ferromagnetism in ZnO, two thin films doped by carbon (C) and having Zn interstitials and oxygen vacancies were prepared and annealed in vacuum and air, respectively. According to the MCD-H and M-H measurements, the film, which was annealed in air, exhibits a ferromagnetic behavior, while the other does not. One can assume annealing of ZnO in vacuum should create oxygen vacancies or Zn interstitial atoms. At that annealing of the second C:ZnO film in air leads to essential magnetization, probably by annihilation of oxygen vacancies, formation of interstitial oxygen atoms or zinc vacancies. Thus, our experimental results confirm our theoretical conclusions that ZnO magnetization origin are Oi or Znv defects.