Bound states in the continuum and polarization singularities in periodic arrays of dielectric rods

Bulgakov, EN; Maksimov, DN PHYSICAL REVIEW A, 96 (6):10.1103/PhysRevA.96.063833 DEC 22 2017

We consider optical bound states in the continuum (BICs) in periodic arrays of dielectric rods. The full classification of BICs in the above system is provided, including the modes propagating along the axes of the rods and bidirectional BICs propagating both along the axes of the rods and the axis of periodicity. It is shown that the leaky zones supporting the BICs generally have elliptically polarized far-field radiation patterns, with the polarization ellipses collapsing on approach to the BICs in momentum space. That allowed us to apply the concept of polarization singularities and demonstrate that the BICs possess a topological charge defined as the winding number of the polarization direction [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 257401 (2014)]. It is found that the evolution of the BICs, including their creation and annihilation, under variation of geometric parameters is controlled by the topological charge. Three scenarios of such evolution for different leaky zones are described. Finally, it is shown that the topological properties of the BICs can be extracted from transmission spectra when the system is illuminated by a plane wave of circular polarization.